# Error Handling

Most of the error handling in Lighthouse is pretty closely based upon webonyx/graphql-php, so you can find a lot of valuable information in their documentation (opens new window).

# User-friendly Errors

In a production setting, error messages should not be shown to the user by default to prevent information leaking. In some cases however, you may want to display an explicit error message to the user.

webonyx/graphql-php offers the GraphQL\Error\ClientAware (opens new window) interface, that can be implemented by Exceptions to control how they are rendered to the client.

Head over their Error Handling docs (opens new window) to learn more.

# Additional Error Information

The interface GraphQL\Error\ProvidesExtensions (opens new window) may be implemented to add more information than just an error message to the rendered error output.

This custom exception contains information about the reason the exception was thrown:

namespace App\Exceptions;

use Exception;
use GraphQL\Error\ClientAware;
use GraphQL\Error\ProvidesExtensions;

final class CustomException extends Exception implements ClientAware, ProvidesExtensions
    /** @var @string */
    protected $reason;

    public function __construct(string $message, string $reason)

        $this->reason = $reason;

     * Returns true when exception message is safe to be displayed to a client.
    public function isClientSafe(): bool
        return true;

     * Data to include within the "extensions" key of the formatted error.
     * @return array<string, mixed>
    public function getExtensions(): array
        return [
            'some' => 'additional information',
            'reason' => $this->reason,

Now you can just throw that Exception somewhere in your code, for example your resolver, and it will display additional error output.

namespace App\GraphQL\Queries;

use App\Exceptions\CustomException;
use Nuwave\Lighthouse\Execution\ResolveInfo;
use Nuwave\Lighthouse\Support\Contracts\GraphQLContext;

final class SomeField
    public function __invoke(mixed $root, array $args, GraphQLContext $context, ResolveInfo $resolveInfo): string
        if ($this->errorConditionIsMet()) {
            throw new CustomException(
                'This is the error message',
                'The reason why this error was thrown, is rendered in the extension output.'

        return 'Success!';

A query that produces an error will render like this:

  "data": null,
  "errors": [
      "message": "This is the error message",
      "extensions": {
        "some": "additional information",
        "reason": "The reason why this error was thrown, is rendered in the extension output."

# Registering Error Handlers

Error handlers receive the errors that occur during GraphQL execution. They can be used to log, filter or format the errors.

Add them to your lighthouse.php config file, for example:

'error_handlers' => [

An error handler class must implement \Nuwave\Lighthouse\Execution\ErrorHandler (opens new window)

namespace App\GraphQL;

use GraphQL\Error\Error;
use Nuwave\Lighthouse\Execution\ErrorHandler;

final class CountErrorHandler implements ErrorHandler
    public function __invoke(?Error $error, \Closure $next): ?array
        // You can discard errors by returning null
        if ($this->shouldBeDiscarded($error)) {
            return null;

        // Error handlers are instantiated once per query

        // Keep the pipeline going, last step formats the error into an array
        return $next($error);

# Partial Errors

As a GraphQL query may return a partial result, you may not always want to abort execution immediately after an error occurred.

Use the ErrorPool (opens new window) when you want to collect multiple errors before returning a result.

try {
    // Something that might fail but still allows for a partial result
} catch (\Throwable $error) {
    $errorPool = app(\Nuwave\Lighthouse\Execution\ErrorPool::class);

return $result;

# Testing Errors

See PHPUnit - Testing Errors.